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LEAS Works by other authors

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Levels of Emotional Awareness Scale (LEAS)

Works by other authors (organized by publication date – as of 9/1/2021): 

  1. Farrell, J. M., & Shaw, I. A. (1994). Emotional awareness training: A prerequisite to effective cognitive-behavioral treatment of borderline personality disorder. Cognitive and Behavioral Practice, 1, 71-91.
  2. Levine, D., Marziali, E., & Hood, J. (1997). Emotion processing in borderline personality disorders. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease185(4), 240-246.
  3. Machado, P. P., Beutler, L. E., & Greenberg, L. S. (1999). Emotion recognition in psychotherapy: Impact of therapist level of experience and emotional awareness. Journal of Clinical Psychology55(1), 39-57.
  4. Berthoz, S., Ouhayoun, B., Parage, N., Kirzenbaum, M., Bourgey, M., & Allilaire, J. F. (2000). Étude préliminaire des niveaux de conscience émotionnelle chez des patients déprimés et des contrôles [Preliminary study of the levels of emotional awareness in depressed patients and controls]. Annales Médico-Psychologiques, 158(8), 665-672. [French adaptation]
  5. Conway, M. (2000). On sex roles and representations of emotional experience: Masculinity, femininity, and emotional awareness. Sex Roles, 43(9-10), 687-698.
  6. Suslow, T., Donges, U. S., Kersting, A., & Arolt, V. (2000). 20‐Item Toronto Alexithymia Scale: Do difficulties describing feelings assess proneness to shame instead of difficulties symbolizing emotions? Scandinavian Journal of Psychology41(4), 329-334. [German adaptation]
  7. Suslow, T., Junghanns, K., Donges, U. S., & Arolt, V. (2001). Alexithymia and automatic processing of verbal and facial affect stimuli. Cahiers de Psychologie Cognitive/Current Psychology of Cognition, 20(5), 297-324.
  8. Suslow, T., Kersting, A., Ohrmann, P., & Arolt, V. (2001). A critique of the construct “alexithymia” and its measurement - The weakness of self-report and the opportunities of an objective assessment approach. Zeitschrift Fur Psychosomatische Medizin Und Psychotherapie47(2), 153–166.
  9. Subič-Wrana, C., Thomas, W., Huber, M., & Köhle, K. (2001). Levels of Emotional Awareness Scale (LEAS). Psychotherapeut46(3), 176–181. [German adaptation]
  10. Subič-Wrana, C., Bruder, S., Thomas, W., Gaus, E., Merkle, W., & Köhle, K. (2002). Verteilung des Persönlichkeitsmerkmals Alexithymie bei Patienten in stationärer psychosomatischer Behandlung - gemessen mit TAS-20 und LEAS [Distribution of alexithymia as a personality trait in psychosomatically ill inpatients - measured with TAS-20 and LEAS]. PPmP-Psychotherapie· Psychosomatik· Medizinische Psychologie52(11), 454-460. [German adaptation]
  11. Bydlowski, S., Corcos, M., Paterniti, S., Guilbaud, O., Jeammet, P., & Consoli, S. (2002). French validation study of the levels of emotional awareness scale. Encephale-Revue De Psychiatrie Clinique Biologique Et Therapeutique28(4), 310-320. [Frecnh adaptation]
  12. Bydlowski, S., Corcos, M., Consoli, S., Paterniti, S., Laurier, C., Chambry, J., . . . & Jeammet, P. (2002). Anhedonia and emotional awareness: Facts and perspectives in eating disorders. Annales De Medecine Interne153(7 Suppl), S52-S61.
  13. Croyle, K. L., & Waltz, J. (2002). Emotional awareness and couples’ relationship satisfaction. Journal of Marital and Family Therapy28(4), 435-444.
  14. Lundh, L. G., Johnsson, A., Sundqvist, K., & Olsson, H. (2002). Alexithymia, memory of emotion, emotional awareness, and perfectionism. Emotion2(4), 361. [Swedish adaptation]
  15. Barchard, K. A. (2003). Does emotional intelligence assist in the prediction of academic success? Educational and Psychological Measurement, 63(5), 840-858. doi:10.1177/0013164403251333
  16. Waller, E., & Scheidt, C. E. (2004). Somatoform disorders as disorders of affect regulation: a study comparing the TAS-20 with non-self-report measures of alexithymia. Journal of Psychosomatic Research57(3), 239-247. [German adaptation]
  17. Ciarrochi, J., Caputi, P., & Mayer, J. D. (2003). The distinctiveness and utility of a measure of trait emotional awareness. Personality and Individual Differences34(8), 1477-1490.
  18. Kang, S. M., & Shaver, P. R. (2004). Individual differences in emotional complexity: Their psychological implications. Journal of Personality72(4), 687-726.
  19. Yousefi, F. (2004). Levels of emotional awareness scale among Iranian gifted and nongifted high school students. Psychological Reports, 95(2), 504-506. doi:10.2466/PR0.95.6.504-506 [Persian adaptation]
  20. Barchard, K. A., & Hakstian, A. R. (2004). The nature and measurement of emotional intelligence abilities: Basic dimensions and their relationships with other cognitive ability and personality variables. Educational & Psychological Measurement64(3), 437-462. doi:10.1177/0013164403261762
  21. Novick-Kline, P., Turk, C., Mennin, D., Hoyt, E., & Gallagher, C. (2005). Level of emotional awareness as a differentiating variable between individuals with and without generalized anxiety disorder. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 19(5), 557-572. doi:10.1016/j.janxdix.2004.06.001
  22. Donges, U. S., Kersting, A., Dannlowski, U., Lalee-Mentzel, J., Arolt, V., & Suslow, T. (2005). Reduced awareness of others’ emotions in unipolar depressed patients. The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease193(5), 331-337.
  23. Bydlowski, S., Corcos, M., Jeammet, P., Paterniti, S., Berthoz, S., Laurier, C., ... & Consoli, S. M. (2005). Emotion‐processing deficits in eating disorders. International Journal of Eating Disorders37(4), 321-329. [French adaptation]
  24. Simson, U., Martin, K., Schäfer, R., Janssen, P., & Franz, M. (2005). Alexithymie in einer klinischen Stichprobe [Alexithymia in a clinical sample]. PPmP-Psychotherapie· Psychosomatik· Medizinische Psychologie55(07), 347-353. [German adaptation]
  25. Ciarrochi, J., Hynes, K., & Crittenden, N. (2005). Can men do better if they try harder: Sex and motivational effects on emotional awareness. Cognition & Emotion19(1), 133-141.
  26. Lumley, M. A., Gustavson, B. J., Partridge, R. T., & Labouvie-Vief, G. (2005). Assessing alexithymia and related emotional ability constructs using multiple methods: Interrelationships among measures. Emotion5(3), 329-342. doi:10.1037/1528-3542.5.3.329
  27. Jouanne, C., Edel, Y., & Carton, S. (2005). Emotional deficits among multiple substances abusers. Annales Medico-Psychologiques163(8), 625-630. doi:10.1016/j.amp.2004.05.013 [French adaptation]
  28. Bréjard, V., Bonnet, A., & Pedinielli, J. (2005). Développement cognitivo-émotionnel, régulation des émotions et comportements à risques: Une étude exploratoire chez l'adolescent [Emotional-cognitive development, emotion regulation and risk-taking behaviors: An exploratory study with adolescents]. Neuropsychiatrie De l'Enfance Et De l'Adolescence53(8), 395-400. doi:10.1016/j.neurenf.2005.09.018 [French adaptation]
  29. Consoli, S., Rolhion, S., Martin, C., Ruel, K., Cambazard, F., Pellet, J., & Misery, L. (2006). Low levels of emotional awareness predict a better response to dermatological treatment in patients with psoriasis. Journal of Psychosomatic Research61(3), 423-424.
  30. Simson, U., Martin, K., Schafer, R., Franz, M., & Janssen, P. (2006). Changes in alexithymia and emotional awareness during psychotherapeutic inpatient treatment. Psychotherapie Psychosomatik Medizinische Psychologie56(9-10), 376-382. doi:10.1055/s-2006-940127 [German adaptation]
  31. Barth, G. M., & Klonsinski, G. (2007). Emotionale entwicklung und kunst-therapeutische symbolisierung [Emotional development and the symbolization of art therapy]. Tanz- und Kunsttherapie18(1), 22-32. doi:10.1026/0933-6885.18.1.22
  32. Tull, M. T., & Roemer, L. (2007). Emotion regulation difficulties associated with the experience of uncured panic attacks: Evidence of experiential avoidance, emotional nonacceptance, and decreased emotional clarity. Behavior Therapy38(4), 378-391. doi:10.1016/j.beth.2006.10.006
  33. Carton, S., Bayard, S., Jouanne, C., & Lagrue, G. (2008). Emotional awareness and alexithymia in smokers seeking help for cessation: A clinical analysis. Journal of Smoking Cessation3(2), 81-91. doi:10.1375/jsc.3.2.81
  34. Baslet, G., Termini, L., & Herbener, E. (2009). Deficits in emotional awareness in schizophrenia and their relationship with other measures of functioning. The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease197(9), 655-660. doi:10.1097/NMD.0b013e3181b3b20f
  35. Radice-Neumann, D., Zupan, B., Tomita, M., & Willer, B. (2009). Training emotional processing in persons with brain injury. Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation24(5), 313-323. doi:10.1097/HTR.0b013e3181b09160
  36. Kessler, H., Traue, H. C., Hopfensitz, M., Subic-Wrana, C., & Hoffmann, H. (2010). Levels of emotional awareness scale - Computer. Psychotherapeut55(4), 329-334. [German adaptation]
  37. Staun, L., Kessler, H., Buchheim, A., Kächele, H., & Taubner, S. (2010). Mentalisierung und chronische Depression [Mentalization and chronic depression]. Psychotherapeut55(4), 299-305. [German adaptation]
  38. Carton, S., Bayard, S., Paget, V., Jouanne, C., Varescon, I., Edel, Y., & Detilleux, M. (2010). Emotional awareness in substance‐dependent patients. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 66(6), 599-610. [French adaptation]
  39. Bochand, L., & Nandrino, J. (2010). Levels of emotional awareness in alcohol-dependent patients and abstinent alcoholics. Encephale-Revue De Psychiatrie Clinique Biologique Et Therapeutique36(4), 334-339. doi:10.1016/j.encep.2009.12.013
  40. Oldershaw, A., Hambrook, D., Tchanturia, K., Treasure, J., & Schmidt, U. (2010). Emotional theory of mind and emotional awareness in recovered anorexia nervosa patients. Psychosomatic Medicine72(1), 73-79. doi:10.1097/PSY.0b013e3181c6c7ca
  41. Parling, T., Mortazavi, M., & Ghaderi, A. (2010). Alexithymia and emotional awareness in anorexia nervosa: Time for a shift in the measurement of the concept? Eating behaviors11(4), 205-210. [Swedish adaptation]
  42. Pasquier, A., & Pedinielli, J. L. (2010). Étude exploratoire des relations entre conscience émotionnelle, partage social des émotions, états anxieux et états dépressifs [Exploratory study of relations between emotional awareness, social sharing of emotions, anxious and depression states]. L’Encéphale, 36(2), D97-D104. [French adaptation]
  43. Tavares, P., Barnard, P. J., & Lawrence, A. D. (2011). Emotional complexity and the neural representation of emotion in motion. Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience6(1), 98-108. doi:10.1093/scan/nsq021
  44. Brejard, V., Pasquier, A., Bonnet, A., & Pedinielli, J. (2011). Comparative study of the subjective emotional experience among adolescents showing depressive symptoms associated or not with risk-taking behavior. Encephale-Revue De Psychiatrie Clinique Biologique Et Therapeutique37(4), 257-265. doi:10.1016/j.encep.2010.12.003 [French adaptation]
  45. Bréjard, V., Bonnet, A., Pasquier, A., & Pedinielli, J. (2011). Symptomatologie dépressive à l’adolescence : rôle de la personnalité et de la conscience émotionnelle [Depressive symptoms in adolescence: Role of personality and emotion awareness]. Neuropsychiatrie del’enfance et de l’adolescence, 59(3), 157-162. doi:10.1016/j.neurenf.2010.07.013 [French adaptation]
  46. Subič-Wrana, C., Beetz, A., Wiltink, J., & Beutel, M. E. (2011). Unresolved attachment and remembered childhood trauma in patients undergoing psychosomatic inpatient treatment. Zeitschrift Fur Psychosomatische Medizin Und Psychotherapie57(4), 325–342.
  47. Szczygieł, D., Buczny, J., & Bazińska, R. (2012). Emotion regulation and emotional information processing: The moderating effect of emotional awareness. Personality and Individual Differences52(3), 433-437. doi:10.1016/j.paid.2011.11.005 [Polish adaptation]
  48. Baeza-Velasco, C., Carton, S., Almohsen, C., Blotman, F., & Gély-Nargeot, M. C. (2012). Alexithymia and emotional awareness in females with Painful Rheumatic Conditions. Journal of Psychosomatic Research73(5), 398-400.
  49. Foran, H. M., O'Leary, K. D., & Williams, M. C. (2012). Emotional abilities in couples: A construct validation study. The American Journal of Family Therapy, 40, 189-207. doi:10.1080/01926187.2011.601214
  50. Barchard, K. A., Hensley, S., Anderson, E. D., & Walker, H. E. (2013). Measuring the ability to perceive the emotional connotations of written language. Journal of Personality Assessment95(4), 332-342. doi:10.1080/00223891.2012.736906
  51. Beutel, M. E., Scheurich, V., Knebel, A., Michal, M., Wiltink, J., Graf-Morgenstern, M., . . . & Subic-Wrana, C. (2013). Implementing panic-focused psychodynamic psychotherapy into clinical practice. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry58(6), 326-334.
  52. DeJong, H., Van den Eynde, F., Broadbent, H., Kenyon, M. D., Lavender, A., Startup, H., & Schmidt, U. (2013). Social cognition in bulimia nervosa: A systematic review. European Psychiatry28(1), 1-6. doi:10.1016/j.eurpsy.2011.07.002
  53. Gandolphe, M., Nandrino, J., Hancart, S., & Vosgien, V. (2013). Autobiographical memory and differentiation of schematic models in substance-dependent patients. Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry44(1), 114-121. doi:10.1016/j.jbtep.2012.07.012 [French adaptation]
  54. Nandrino, J. L., Baracca, M., Antoine, P., Paget, V., Bydlowski, S., & Carton, S. (2013). Level of emotional awareness in the general French population: Effects of gender, age, and education level. International Journal of Psychology48(6), 1072-1079. [French adaptation]
  55. Roberton, T., Daffern, M., & Bucks, R. S. (2014). Maladaptive emotion regulation and aggression in adult offenders. Psychology, Crime & Law20(10), 933-954. doi:10.1080/1068316X.2014.893333
  56. Roberton, T., Daffern, M., & Bucks, R. S. (2013). Oral administration of the levels of emotional awareness scale. Australian Journal of Psychology65(3), 172-179. doi:10.1111/ajpy.12018
  57. Rommel, D., Nandrino, J., Antoine, P., & Dodin, V. (2013). Emotional differentiation and parental bonding in inpatients suffering from eating disorders. British Journal of Clinical Psychology52(2), 215-229. doi:10.1111/bjc.12010 [French adaptation]
  58. Wotschack, C., & Klann-Delius, G. (2013). Alexithymia and the conceptualization of emotions: A study of language use and semantic knowledge. Journal of Research in Personality47(5), 514-523. doi:10.1016/j.jrp.2013.01.011 [German adaptation]
  59. Montag, C., Haase, L., Seidel, D., Bayerl, M., Gallinat, J., Herrmann, U., & Dannecker, K. (2014). A pilot RCT of psychodynamic group art therapy for patients in acute psychotic episodes: Feasibility, impact on symptoms and mentalising capacity. Plos One9(11), e112348. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0112348 [German adaptation]
  60. Lichev, V., Rufer, M., Rosenberg, N., Ihme, K., Grabe, H., Kugel, H., . . . & Suslow, T. (2014). Assessing alexithymia and emotional awareness: Relations between measures in a German non-clinical sample. Comprehensive Psychiatry55(4), 952-959. doi:10.1016/j.comppsych.2013.12.013 [German adaptation]
  61. Zunhammer, M., Halski, A., Eichhammer, P., & Busch, V. (2015). Theory of mind and emotional awareness in chronic somatoform pain patients. Plos One10(10), e0140016. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0140016 [German adaptation]
  62. Burger, A., Lumley, M., Carty, J., Latsch, D., Thakur, E., Hyde-Nolan, M., . . . & Schubiner, H. (2016). The effects of a novel psychological attribution and emotional awareness and expression therapy for chronic musculoskeletal pain: A preliminary, uncontrolled trial. Journal of Psychosomatic Research81, 1-8. doi:10.1016/j.jpsychores.2015.12.003
  63. Doherty, H., Lockhart, N., Lumley, M., Williams, D., Schubiner, H., & Clauw, D. (2016). Emotional abilities moderate responses to different psychological interventions for fibromyalgia. Journal of Pain17(4), S98. doi:10.1016/j.jpain.2016.01.302
  64. Kuzucu, Y. (2016). Duygusal farkındalık düzeyi ölçeğinin uyarlanması: Geçerlik ve Güvenirlik Çalışmaları [Adaptation of the emotional awareness level scale: Validity and reliability studies]. Türk Psikolojik Danışma ve Rehberlik Dergisi3(29), 51-64. [Turkish adaptation]
  65. Pietri, M., & Bonnet, A. (2016). Alexithymie et victimation chronique au sein du couple [Alexithymia and chronic victimization in partnership]. Annales Médico-Psychologiques, Revue Psychiatrique, 175(3), 223-228. [French adaptation]
  66. Maroti, D., Molander, P., & Bileviciute‐Ljungar, I. (2017). Differences in alexithymia and emotional awareness in exhaustion syndrome and chronic fatigue syndrome. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology58(1), 52-61.
  67. Neumann, D., Malec, J. F., & Hammond, F. M. (2017). Reductions in alexithymia and emotion dysregulation after training emotional self-awareness following traumatic brain injury: A phase I trial. Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation. Advance online publication.
  68. Barchard, K. A., & Picker, C. J. (2018). Computer scoring of emotional awareness in a nonclinical population of young adults. Journal of Personality Assessment100(1), 107-115.
  69. Donges, U. S., & Suslow, T. (2018). Associations between trait emotional awareness and automatic emotion processing. Nordic Psychology, 70(2), 160-175.
  70. Heraz, A., & Clynes, M. (2018). Recognition of emotions conveyed by touch through force-sensitive screens: Observational study of humans and machine learning techniques. JMIR Mental Health5(3), e10104.
  71. Maroti, D., Lilliengren, P., & Bileviciute-Ljungar, I. (2018). The relationship between alexithymia and emotional awareness: A meta-analytic review of the correlation between TAS-20 and LEAS. Frontiers in Psychology9, 453.
  72. Oldershaw, A., Lavender, T., & Schmidt, U. (2018). Are socio‐emotional and neurocognitive functioning predictors of therapeutic outcomes for adults with anorexia nervosa? European Eating Disorders Review26(4), 346-359.
  73. Alegre, N., Perre, P. V., Bignon, Y. J., Michel, A., Galibert, V., Mophawe, O., ... & Pujol, P. (2019). Psychosocial and clinical factors of probands impacting intrafamilial disclosure and uptake of genetic testing among families with BRCA1/2 or MMR gene mutations. Psycho‐oncology28(8), 1679-1686. [French adaptation]
  74. Etchepare, A., Roux, S., Destaillats, J. M., Cady, F., Fontanier, D., Couhet, G., & Prouteau, A. (2019). What are the specificities of social cognition in schizophrenia? A cluster-analytic study comparing schizophrenia with the general population. Psychiatry Research272, 369-379.
  75. Li, L. Y., Karcher, N. R., Kerns, J. G., Fung, C. K., & Martin, E. A. (2019). The subjective-objective deficit paradox in schizotypy extends to emotion regulation and awareness. Journal of Psychiatric Research111, 160-168.
  76. Vine, V., Bernstein, E. E., & Nolen-Hoeksema, S. (2019). Less is more? Effects of exhaustive vs. minimal emotion labelling on emotion regulation strategy planning. Cognition and Emotion33(4), 855-862.
  77. Bileviciute-Ljungar, I., & Friberg, D. (2020). Emotional awareness correlated with number of awakenings from polysomnography in patients with myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome—A pilot study. Frontiers in Psychiatry11, 222. doi: 10.3389/fpsyt.2020.00222
  78. Jungilligens, J., Wellmer, J., Schlegel, U., Kessler, H., Axmacher, N., & Popkirov, S. (2020). Impaired emotional and behavioural awareness and control in patients with dissociative seizures.Psychological Medicine, 50(16), 2731-2739. doi:10.1017/S0033291719002861
  79. Nyklíček, I. (2020). Aspects of self-awareness in meditators and meditation-naïve participants: Self-report versus task performance. Mindfulness, 1-10. [Dutch adaptation]
  80. Scavenius, C., Sørensen, J. H., Hansen, S. J., & Kaspersen, S. (2020). Resultatdokumentation af to mentaliseringsbaserede programmer (Results documentation of two mentalization-based programs). [Danish adaptation]
  81. Vander Wal, J. S., Kauffman, A. A., & Soulliard, Z. A. (2020). Differences in alexithymia, emotional awareness, and facial emotion recognition under conditions of self-focused attention among women with high and low eating disorder symptoms: A 2 x 2 experimental study. Journal of Eating Disorders8(1), 1-9.
  82. Vuillier, L., Carter, Z., Teixeira, A. R., & Moseley, R. L. (2020). Alexithymia may explain the relationship between autistic traits and eating disorder psychopathology. Molecular Autism11(1), 1-19.
  83. Wielgopolan, A., & Kamil, K. I. (2020). Can emotional awareness of liars influence deception detection effectiveness? Journal of Personality Assessment, 1-8. doi:10.1080/00223891.2020.1832102
  84. Aival‐Naveh, E., Rothschild‐Yakar, L., & Kurman, J. (2021). The moderating effects of self and other mentalizing on the relationship between distress and disordered eating: A cross‐cultural examination. Journal of Clinical Psychology. doi:10.1002/jclp.23121.
  85. Hurel, E., Challet-Bouju, G., Chirio-Espitalier, M., Vincent, M., & Grall-Bronnec, M. (2021). Social communication disorder and behavioural addition: Case report and clinical implications. Journal of Behavioral Additions, 10(2), 352-360.
  86. Jáni, M., Kikinis, Z., Lošák, J., Pasternak, O., Szczepankiewicz, F., Heller, C., ... & Kašpárek, T. (2021). Emotional awareness in schizophrenia is associated with gray matter volume of right precuneus. Frontiers in Psychiatry12, 416.
  87. Jungilligens, J., Wellmer, J., Kowoll, A., Schlegel, U., Axmacher, N., & Popkirov, S. (2021). Microstructural integrity of affective neurocircuitry in patients with dissociative seizures is associated with emotional task performance, illness severity and trauma history. Seizure84, 91-98.
  88. Meehan, K. B. (2021). Clinical applications: What can multimethod designs tell us about personality functioning? Journal of Personality Assessment, 103(5), 1-2.
  89. Velotti, P., Rogier, G., Beomonte Zobel., S., & Billieux, J. (2021). Association between gambling disorder and emotion (dys)regulation: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Clinical Psychology Review, 87, 102037.
  90. Vander Wal, J. S., Soulliard, Z. A., & Kauffman, A. A. (2021). Construct validity of the Levels of Emotional Awareness Scale among women high in eating disorder symptoms: A cross-sectional study. Eating and Weight Disorders-Studies on Anorexia, Bulimia and Obesity26(5), 1653-1659.